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Warfare in Neolithic Thessaly: A Case Study
by Curtis Runnels, Claire Payne, Noam V. Rifkind, Chantel White, Nicholas P. Wolff, and Steven A. LeBlanc
Cross-cultural archaeological and ethnographic evidence for warfare in farming societies invites us to reconsider the traditional picture of the Greek Neolithic (ca. 7000–3400 B.C.) as a period of peaceful coexistence among subsistence farmers. Archaeological correlates of intercommunal conflict in the prehistoric American Southwest and the widespread evidence for warfare in Neolithic Europe suggest that warfare is also likely to have taken place in Neolithic Greece. The well-known Neolithic record for Thessaly reveals evidence for warfare in defensive structures, weapons, and settlement patterns. Competition for resources such as arable land, grazing rights, and water may have contributed to the causes of Greek Neolithic warfare.
How the Corinthians Manufactured Their First Roof Tiles
by Philip Sapirstein
The earliest known terracotta roof postdating the Bronze Age belongs to the 7th-century B.C. Old Temple at Corinth. Analysis of the surface markings preserved on its tiles suggests a hypothesis for the forming and finishing stages of tile manufacture. Individual tiles were built right side up on a mold, with a pair of profiled templates guiding the shape of the top. Replication experiments reveal that the template design for these tiles is much simpler than formerly believed. Nonetheless, it is likely that the Corinthians created their first tiles in imitation of an earlier terracotta roofing system with separate cover and pan tiles, perhaps developed outside the Corinthia.
Fifth-Century Horoi on Aigina: A Reevaluation
by Irene Polinskaya
In this article, the author reexamines the 14 known horos inscriptions from Aigina in connection with the discovery of four new horoi, published here for the first time. These additional horoi lend new support to the arguments—debated by many scholars—for the date (431–404 B.C.), occasion (Athenian occupation of Aigina during the Peloponnesian War), authorship (Athenian), and purpose (markers of agricultural estates) of the Aiginetan horoi. The article presents a fresh view of Athenian motivations for the introduction of agricultural temene dedicated to the gods on Aigina and in other conquered territories during the Athenian Empire.
The 2005 Chios Ancient Shipwreck Survey: New Methods for Underwater Archaeology
by Brendan P. Foley, Katerina Dellaporta, Dimitris Sakellariou, Brian S. Bingham, Richard Camilli, Ryan M. Eustice, Dionysis Evagelistis, Vicki Lynn Ferrini, Kostas Katsaros, Dimitris Kourkoumelis, Aggelos Mallios, Paraskevi Micha, David A. Mindell, Christopher Roman, Hanumant Singh, David S. Switzer, and Theotokis Theodoulou
In 2005 a Greek and American interdisciplinary team investigated two shipwrecks off the coast of Chios dating to the 4th-century b.c. and the 2nd/1st century. The project pioneered archaeological methods of precision acoustic, digital image, and chemical survey using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and in-situ sensors, increasing the speed of data acquisition while decreasing costs. The AUV recorded data revealing the physical dimensions, age, cargo, and preservation of the wrecks. The earlier wreck contained more than 350 amphoras, predominantly of Chian type, while the Hellenistic wreck contained about 40 Dressel 1C amphoras. Molecular biological analysis of two amphoras from the 4th-century wreck revealed ancient DNA of olive, oregano, and possibly mastic, part of a cargo outbound from Chios.