History of the American School 1939-1980- Chapter XI

A History of the American School of Classical Studies, 1939-1980

Chapter XI: Publications of the School

From the beginning the founders of the School recognized as one of its purposes and one of its responsibilities the publication of the results of the studies pursued by staff and students. At the second meeting of the Managing Committee in November 1882 a Committee on Publications, consisting of the Director for the year 1883—84 Lewis Packard, Basil Gildersleeve and Thomas Ludlow, was appointed to arrange for the publication of a Bulletin each year which would report the activities of the School during the preceding year. In the following year it was decided to publish two Bulletins a year with reports on current work plus a volume of Papers which were to include the scholarly work of the Director and the students of the year before. Each of these series started out as planned, Bulletin I with the report of Goodwin’s first year, 1882—83, appearing in 1883 and Papers I with the articles by Goodwin and the first-year students published in 1884. But thereafter came a lag, at first short but gradually longer. Bulletin II of Packard’s year 1883—84 came out in 1885 instead of in November 1884 as the Managing Committee had voted in May 1884 should be done. In 1885 the first “permanent” Committee on Publications was appointed with its chairman William W. Goodwin, who had been the first Director and who had met his publishing obligations with both Bulletin I and Papers I. He was succeeded by Augustus C. Merriam in 1888 after two more volumes of Papers had been issued and just at the time when the Managing Committee made a significant change in its publication policy.

At its May 1888 meeting the Managing Committee of the School considered the relation of the School to the Archaeological Institute of America in regard to their publications. It was decided that the two organizations should work together to make available to the scholarly world at the earliest possible time the work done at the School. After further discussion it was agreed, in November 1889, that articles by members of the School should be sent by the School’s Committee on Publications to the American Journal of Archaeology where they would be published immediately and circulated separately even before the number of the Journal in which they were to appear again, and that they be designated as Papers of the School, with extra copies printed to be reissued in volumes of Papers of the School. Ideal as this arrangement sounded, it did not prove as satisfactory as envisaged; almost immediately the preprints were abandoned, and the Papers were to be published at the earliest possible moment. Two such volumes of Papers (V and VI) appeared, the latter in 1897 after the Committee on Publications was empowered by the Managing Committee to select from the articles published by the members of the School in the American Journal of Archaeology and not to publish all. The result was no further publication of excavations or other research of the School by the School (except for ten monographs) until the beginning of the Corinth series in 1929 and the establishment of the School’s own Journal Hesperia in 1932. Articles on School material were published in the two journals of the Institute, the American Journal of Archaeology and Art and Archaeology, and elsewhere; in 1897 the Committee on Publications, of which Bernadotte Perrin had become chairman in 1893, was discontinued.

The most extensive of the early excavations of the School before work began at Corinth was that of the Argive Heraion in 1891–1895. A preliminary report was made in Bulletin III, 1892, and the final publication, in two volumes, constituted the first book published by the School, in 1902 and 1905, under the direction of the Director of the excavation and also for one year the Director of the School, Charles Waldstein. The next book the School published, Explorations in the Island of Mochlos, made available in 1912 with unusual promptness Richard Seager’s excavations in Crete in 1908.

By 1919 the work of the School had reached such proportions that there was not only a considerable body of manuscript nearly ready for publication, for which there was no provision, but there had accumulated a mass of excavated material of which no report had been made and for which some responsibility of assignment for study must be undertaken. Under Edward Capps’s chairmanship the Managing Committee therefore reactivated the Committee on Publications and elected as Chairman George H. Chase. He was to have a distinguished term of service for twenty years in inaugurating the impressive output of the School’s publications. Preliminary reports of excavations and short studies of all kinds in classical fields done by students of the School continued to be published in the American Journal of Archaeology and in Art and Archaeology, now no longer always specifically designated as work of the School, but the definitive excavation reports and studies of monograph length undertaken by the School began to be published in book form. Chase acted as editor and his Committee, Harold North Fowler, David Moore Robinson and Mary Hamilton Swindler, read and approved the manuscripts and also read proof. This was all, of course, a volunteer service of members of the Managing Committee, Dean Chase himself devoting to it a very large amount of time as well as care and scholarly advice and assistance.

As from the beginning with Professor Goodwin, it had always been generally understood that the Director of the School had over-all responsibility for publication of the School excavations and other studies. The backlog of unpublished material from the Corinth excavations was by 1924 so great that the Managing Committee made Harold North Fowler Editor-in-chief of Corinth publications, thus transferring the responsibility from the Director to the Committee on Publications. Professor Fowler was charged with undertaking some of the work himself and assigning other parts of the material to be studied and written. In anticipation of the volumes to come Chairman Chase in 1925 concluded an agreement with the Harvard University Press to act as the School’s publisher. Korakou, a Prehistoric Settlement near Corinth had, in 1921, presented Carl Blegen’s work on that site; the Corinth series which Fowler planned had not yet been foreseen, so it stands as a separate monograph. Selected Bindings from the Gennadius Library was a luxurious volume in a limited edition issued by the Trustees and the Managing Committee in 1924 as a tribute and acknowledgment of their gratitude to Mr. Gennadius; it was edited by James M. Paton who oversaw the production in London. Dr. Paton had also been appointed to guide and consolidate the study of the Erechtheum begun by the School in 1908. The resulting The Erechtheum was the first of the volumes which followed along in rapid succession in the period 1927–1939 under Dean Chase’s editorship, a group which reflects well the range of subjects studied by members of the School. In fact it was in these years that there was issued the greatest number of separate monographs not connected with any of the excavations of the School or the Gennadeion series. More would follow in the first years of the war, but thereafter the School was unable to afford to publish these separate studies, so great were the financial demands of the excavation series. Some independent studies appeared later as Hesperia supplements if size was suitable, but the day of the separate monograph was gone (until 1980, see below, p. 271). It had been a distinguished chapter in the history of the School publications. The Erechtheum (1927) was followed by The Athenian Calendar in the Fifth Century by Benjamin D. Meritt (1928), Zygouries by Carl W. Blegen (1928), The Sculpture of the Nike Temple Parapet by Rhys Carpenter (1929), Byzantine Mosaics in Greece: Hosios Lucas and Daphni by Ernst Diez and Otto Demus (1931), The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age by William Bell Dinsmoor (1931), The Periclean Entrance Court of the Acropolis at Athens by Gorham Phillips Stevens (1936), Profiles of Greek Mouldings by Lucy T. Shoe (1936), Documents on Athenian Tribute by Benjamin D. Meritt (1937), and The Athenian Tribute Lists, I by Benjamin Dean Meritt, H. T. Wade-Gery, Malcolm F. McGregor (1939), the first of four volumes. These monographs record some of the independent research of members of the School inspired by and carried on at the School, one of the products of the School which the founders envisaged.

The heavy responsibility of getting the results of the work at Corinth since 1896 into print began to be fulfilled in earnest with eleven volumes published between 1929 and 1936. Several of the assignments made by the Committee through Harold North Fowler after his appointment as Editor-in-chief were completed with exemplary promptness, others were not to be accomplished for many years. The first of the Corinth series was Volume IV, Part i, Decorated Architectural Terracottas by Ida Thallon-Hill and Lida Shaw King, published in 1929; it was fitting that Mrs. Hill’s study should be the first, for she had encouraged her husband and was to continue to encourage and assist him in his own writing on Corinthian matters. There followed quickly IV, ii, Terracotta Lamps, V, The Roman Villa and III, i, Acrocorinth, Excavations in 1926, all in 1930; VIII, i and ii, Greek Inscriptions 1896–1927 and Latin Inscriptions 1896–1926 and IX, Sculpture 1896–1923 in 1931; I, i, Introduction, Topography, Architecture and X, The Odeum in 1932; VI, Coins 1933; and III, ii, The Defenses of Acrocorinth and the Lower Town in 1936. These were prepared by members of the staff and students of the twenties: Broneer, Shear, Blegen, Stillwell, Bellinger, Meritt, West, Franklin P. Johnson, Katharine M. Edwards, Carpenter as well as Fowler himself.

Although all these volumes as well as the separate monographs were published for the School by the Harvard University Press they were printed at various presses beside the Harvard Press itself. Several were printed in Athens; the author of The Athenian Calendar in the Fifth Century (Benjamin D. Meritt) set much of the type himself at the Hestia Press and supervised the making of the necessary epigraphical font. Other authors resident in Athens oversaw the presswork of their volumes, particularly Oscar Broneer his Corinth Lamps and Odeum. The Harvard Press did The Erechtheum, with its splendid text and plates, and several other volumes.
In 1932 the School had begun a most happy association with a printing firm in Vienna, Adolf Holzhausens Nachfolger, who were given the task of printing the new journal (see below). So excellent was their work and so effective and pleasant the dealing with them that the Corinth volumes were turned over to them also as well as the monographs, notably the Byzantine Mosaics and Profiles of Greek Mouldings, which were triumphs of production. Finally, as war clouds gathered, it was recognized that printing of books had best be brought to the United States. With The Athenian Tribute Lists, volume I began the long and mutually respected and friendly connection with the J. H. Furst Company in Baltimore.

The book-length manuscripts were thus being handled promptly and effectively, but as the pace of the School’s work in the field and in the study increased during the twenties and as a still greater number of articles could be foreseen from the excavations soon to be begun in the Athenian Agora the Chairman of the Managing Committee Edward Capps and the Director Rhys Carpenter reviewed the existing possibilities for publication of articles. Clearly the American Journal of Archaeology would no longer be able to give the prompt publication needed for the School’s work; it was time, they believed, for the School to inaugurate a quarterly journal of its own. Upon Carpenter’s recommendation the Managing Committee voted approval in 1929, and in 1932 the first volume (a one-number volume) of Hesperia appeared. The regular four numbers began in volume II, 1933 and have continued regularly ever since. The Director acted as Editor, and the printing was done by Holzhausens in Vienna who handled the distribution also; the subscription and business matters were also taken care of by the Director in Athens. From the start the journal was well received; its scholarly articles (e.g., those by Carpenter on the pedimental sculpture of the Parthenon in the first two volumes), its prompt preliminary reports of the Agora excavations in each volume and its handsome appearance all drew favorable reaction from the classical world. It was agreed that beginning with the first full four-number volume in 1933 two of the four numbers should be devoted to publication of material from the Athenian Agora. The goal of the Managing Committee of 1882 had at last been attained.

It soon became apparent, however, that there would be some studies too long for Hesperia which it would be advisable to have associated with the journal. The series of Supplements was therefore inaugurated with Prytaneis: A Study of the Inscriptions Honoring the Athenian Councillors by Sterling Dow in 1937. These supplements were to be sold as separate volumes, not included in the regular subscription price of the quarterly Hesperia which began with the extremely modest (even for 1932) $3 a year. A second supplement, Late Geometric Graves and a Seventh Century Well in the Agora by Rodney S. Young, appeared in 1939. The Managing Committee of 1939 had reason to feel satisfied with its program of publication in both books and articles.

But as early as May 1939 the trouble ahead could be seen, and some changes had already been made. When the Anschluss between Germany and Austria made further printing in Vienna impossible, the Chairman of the Managing Committee Edward Capps instructed Holzhausens to ship all the School’s stock to the United States, and arrangements were made to have the printing of Hesperia done in Baltimore. This meant that the Publications Committee would now take over the responsibility for Hesperia (its editing and subscriptions) as well as for the books. Dean Chase wished to be relieved of the chairmanship, which would now have been so much more responsibility which he could hardly add to his normal and proper academic commitments. As has been said before (71st Annual Report of the School, 1951–1952, p. 60) Dean Chase was the Father of the School’s publications, as he laid their sound foundation in policy with vision and fairness and in practice with high scholarly standards and dedicated unselfish service to School and authors, for whom his friendly and wise counsel was ever ready. A whole new Publications Committee was appointed by the Managing Committee in 1939 to work with the new Chairman of the Managing Committee, Louis E. Lord, who was an ex officio member of it: Chase continuing as a member, Harold Cherniss and Benjamin D. Meritt (Pl. 15, a) Chairman; later the Executive Committee added Edward Capps. This Committee’s first task was to set up an office where the business of Hesperia as well as the editing of both Hesperia and books could be carried on. The Institute for Advanced Study offered as its annual contribution to the School both office and storage space as well as the part-time services of the Chairman’s secretary (Margot Cutter to 1943, then Dorothy Dauncey) who assisted the Chairman in business matters and a $500 stipend to Paul Clement, a member of the Institute, to augment the salary the School paid him as Managing Editor of Publications, a new position created by the Managing Committee. This remarkably generous assistance to the School was continued until Mr. Clement resigned as of December 31, 1949. Office space for Editor and Publications Secretary and storage space for the stock of the Committee have continued to be contributed by the Institute to the present (1980), a very significant gift to the School, many times the value of the usual $250 annual contribution of other Cooperating Institutions. Had the School been required to rent this office and storage space or enter into contract with a publisher to handle its publications during these forty years, it is frightening to think of the volumes it would not have had the funds to publish. The Institute for Advanced Study ranks as one of the greatest benefactors of the School in its history.

The other prime task for the new Chairman was to find a printer to replace Holzhausens who had been doing practically all books as well as Hesperia when the association with them had to be broken. The greatest prerequisites were adequate Greek type and compositors who knew how to set it. Few American printers could qualify, but one already well known to the Chairman from the years he edited The American Journal of Philology was conveniently at hand and was already known as one of the finest printers of Greek texts, the J. H. Furst Company of Baltimore. They were at the time setting type for the monumental Athenian Tribute Lists I for the Harvard Press. This was as exacting an assignment in the setting of Greek type as was likely to occur again in the School’s publications and had been executed with masterly skill and patience and understanding. This was what the School needed for all its texts. The Fursts took on Hesperia with Volume VIII, 3 in 1939 and were soon also doing the printing of the School’s books published by the Harvard Press.

For the first three years of the war there were sufficient articles for both the two Agora and the two School numbers of Hesperia, but as more of the staff and students and former students left academic pursuits for war service the usual flow of articles into the editor’s office slowed, and by 1942 it was feared there might have to be much reduced numbers if Hesperia continued to restrict its pages to the members and alumni of the School. The Managing Committee in 1942 approved a temporary policy of accepting from time to time articles from authors not directly connected with the School. It was not necessary to do this frequently in the remaining years of the war, but the renewed approval of the Managing Committee in 1943 and 1944 made it possible to include some valuable articles on classical subjects from non-School personnel and to keep all numbers of reasonable size.

There were on hand several longer studies which were published as funds became available as Hesperia Supplements: III, The Setting of the Periclean Parthenon by Gorham Phillips Stevens, and IV, The Tholos of Athens and its Predecessors by Homer A. Thompson in 1940; V, Observations on the Hephaisteion by William Bell Dinsmoor and VI, The Sacred Gerusia by James H. Oliver in 1941; VII, Small Objects from the Pnyx I by Gladys R. Davidson and Dorothy Burr Thompson in 1943. Soon after the death of T. Leslie Shear, Director of the Agora Excavation, in 1945, the Publications Committee voted to dedicate a number of Hesperia to his memory, to invite some of his friends and associates to contribute articles. When the response was so enthusiastic as to produce more material than a number of Hesperia could accommodate, it was decided to publish the contributions as Supplement VIII, which appeared in 1949 with 44 articles from members of the School and foreign friends.
When the first ten volumes of Hesperia had been published at the end of 1941 work was begun immediately on preparation of the Index, Alison Frantz and Rodney Young caring for the English part and Benjamin Meritt, Kendrick Pritchett, and Antony Raubitschek the Greek. As some of the compilers were called away on war service work was delayed, and then even when the Index had gone to the printer there was further delay because of war priorities in the press. After many persons had assisted in the compiling of the items, with especial help from Paul Clement, and preparation of them for the press, the Index to Volumes I—-X and Supplements I—-VI was published in 1946. Copies were sent free to all current subscribers. Neither of these records, a ten-year Index in six years or free copies to subscribers, was ever achieved again.

One of the war-created problems for the Committee was the subscriptions for libraries in countries at war, which could not be delivered. Some such libraries managed to send either word or money to hold the issues for them. The Committee did save and store copies for most of the previous regular subscribers against the time when they could be safely mailed. In some cases these were not delivered even when they were sent at what seemed a safe time after the cessation of hostilities. The School made good these losses so that libraries should not have broken sets of its journal. This diminished the supply of the issues of war years, to the great embarrassment and inconvenience of the office in the following years when, after the war, orders for complete sets of Hesperia began to come in some quantity as libraries around the world recognized its value and their need to have it. It was possible, however, to send a complete set of Volumes I—-IX and Supplements I—-VII to the University of Louvain as a gift from the School to their destroyed library.
Manuscripts for Corinth volumes continued to come to the Committee before their authors went into war occupations; four were published under Meritt’s and Clement’s editorship. The second part of the architectural volume, I, ii, by Stillwell and others, was published in 1941, XI, Charles Morgan, Byzantine Pottery in 1942 and VII, i, Saul Weinberg, Geometric and Orientalizing Pottery in 1943. In 1948 the first part of Agnes Newhall Still-well’s volume XV on the Potter’s Quarter was published. Parts ii and iii on the finds would have to await her return to Corinth for further study.

The first book published in Meritt’s Chairmanship inaugurated a new series designed to make available from time to time items of special interest in the collection of the Gennadius Library. See above, pp. 224—225, for Gennadeion Monographs.

As noted above (p. 242) there were still some separate monographs published in these years. The Chronology of Hellenistic Athens by W. Kendrick Pritchett and Benjamin Dean Meritt (1940) was published with aid from the Institute for Advanced Study; the American Council of Learned Societies contributed most of the cost of Robert L. Scranton, Greek Walls (1941); and Mr. Lincoln MacVeagh, who had been the benefactor for the whole project of reconstructing the Lion at Amphipolis, contributed to the publication which studies the work, Oscar Broneer, The Lion of Amphipolis (1941). The Calendars of Athens by W. Kendrick Pritchett and Otto Neugebauer was published in 1947 and the second volume of The Athenian Tribute Lists by Meritt, Wade-Gery and McGregor in 1949, the third in 1950.

Production costs after the war began the escalation that has continued ever since. Increases for both paper and labor meant that in nearly every year budgets had to be readjusted; any volume in press more than a year was bound to cost more in the end than had been planned. Income luckily was increasing somewhat after the war but not sufficiently. Income from sales accounted for only a small part of each year’s expenses; the remainder came partially from some endowment specifically designated for publication but chiefly from general funds. One welcome gift had been made in 1940 when Mrs. James H. Kirkland gave $5,000 as an endowment fund for publications in memory of her husband, a classicist who had been Chancellor of Vanderbilt University and long interested in the School. This fund was accepted by Chairman of the Managing Committee Lord not only for publications, but he ruled that the interest used for publications be considered the annual contribution of Vanderbilt University as a Cooperating Institution of the School.

In 1948 a momentous change was made, one of the most significant and far-reaching in its effects on the history of the School. The Harvard Press asked that the old arrangements for acting as the School’s publisher be superseded by a contract for each book which would give the Press rights of approval of the manuscript, format, typography and procedure of manufacture. Such contracts would require the School to give up too much of the control which all members of the Committee realized that the School must retain. The Committee on Publications recommended unanimously to the Managing Committee that the School henceforth act as its own publication agent for books as well as for Hesperia, and the Managing Committee voted its approval in May 1948. The fact that the School already had office and storage space at the Institute for Advanced Study made the decision much easier to reach. There would be little difference in purely editorial work; the additional work and expense would come chiefly in the distribution. The increased work of filling orders, with its attendant bookkeeping, would require a full-time Publications Secretary, and the responsibility of the Chairman would be greater. It was thought, however, and this proved very quickly to be true, that sales might increase if the School handled them itself and that the saving of the 15% which had been paid to the Harvard Press plus the very high discount offered by the Press to dealers would make an appreciable difference in revenues. Above all there was a sense of relief that at last the School would be in control of all its publications. The Harvard Press was instructed to ship all stock of School books on hand to the Publications Committee at the Institute for Advanced Study. The Chairman turned over to the Publications Committee his own storage space to give the extra room now needed for the books which arrived in summer 1948, and the School was in the publishing business. A Publications Secretary was added to the budget of the School. In 1947—48 the income from books had been $1,290.35; in 1948—49, the first year of the School’s handling of sales, it was $2,499.25, in 1949—50 $3,003.90, more than paying the Secretary’s salary, and it continued to rise thereafter. Although it had been the policy of the School always to absorb some of the cost of publication as part of its contribution to scholarship so that prices could be kept low and within the reach of students, in 1949 the Committee realized that prices of books must be raised to bring in a bit more revenue. A new Price List was issued in this year with prices, however, still well below the market value for comparable items. Also in May 1949 the Managing Committee voted “that the pages of Hesperia be confined to present and past members of the School and that any request for an exception be referred to the Executive Committee”; there was no longer reason for the temporary opening of Hesperia to other scholars as during the war years, and the Managing Committee wished to clarify its position.

It was true that being responsible for the whole operation, from receiving manuscripts to selling bound volumes, entailed more attention than the Chairman and the Managing Editor had been called upon to give heretofore. Furthermore, the approaching addition of final publications of the Athenian Agora to the existing continuing commitments of the Committee would not lessen the responsibilities of the present Chairman, who had already a commitment, along with other qualified scholars who could help him, to the scholarly study and publication of the epigraphical material from the Athenian Agora. He was acting as Editor and as Chairman from January 1, 1950, after Mr. Clement resigned to take a teaching post elsewhere. Meritt realized that he could not do both his own study and the management of publications and that the School needed a full-time staff member to take complete responsibility, with the help of the other members of the Publications Committee, for the School’s publications. The Chairman of the Managing Committee, Louis Lord, concurred and recommended to the Managing Committee in May 1950 that a former Fellow of the School, a member of the Managing Committee who had been teaching at Mount Holyoke College and was currently a Research Fellow at the American Academy in Rome, Lucy T. Shoe (Pl. 16, c), be appointed to act as both Chairman of the Publications Committee and Editor of Publications. The Managing Committee approved the appointment. Otherwise the Committee on Publications was to remain as since 1939: Meritt staying on as member, Chase (also a former Chairman), Cherniss, Capps (who died in August 1950) and Deferrari, who had been added in 1943. Charles Morgan would replace Louis Lord ex officio as new Chairman of the Managing Committee.

Chase had founded the program of publications substantially as it has remained. It was Meritt’s task to bring the production of that program to the United States, establish the office and its relations with printers and engravers, and begin to formulate the required new principles and policies of editing and publication, based on the foundations laid by Chase and Carpenter. His Chairmanship of the Committee was but the beginning of 30 years of devoted service to the Committee so far beyond the call of duty that those outside the Committee can but dimly comprehend what his wisdom, his wide and long experience, his fairness in judgment, his countless hours of active work donated to the scholarly tasks, his selfless dedication meant to the publications of the School.

It will be recalled that the first publication authorized by the second meeting of the Managing Committee in 1882 had been a report of the first year’s activity of the School. For some years after that first Bulletin, the reports sent to the Managing Committee by the officers of the School in Athens had been published, at first by the School and distributed to the Managing Committee and later in abbreviated form by the Archaeological Institute of America in its Bulletin until 1928. When Louis Lord became Chairman of the Managing Committee in 1939 he undertook to make these very valuable reports available again. He gathered up what material he could find and published the reports for 1928—29 through 1938—39 in three volumes. Thereafter for each year of his Chairmanship he published a full record of personnel and reports from Athens and from the Committee Chairmen of the Managing Committee. These annual reports continued to be published through the Ninety-fifth for 1975—76 and abbreviated reports thereafter. Lord acted as Editor and distributor during the years of his chairmanship, since he considered it his responsibility to the Managing Committee. He also instituted in 1939—40 and published annually a “publication” of the greatest usefulness to the Committee members, especially its officers, the folder which continued to be known as “The Four-Leaf Folder” long after it had outgrown four leaves. Here were listed all the personnel of the School: Trustees and Managing Committee and their Committees, Cooperating Institutions, the Staff of the School in Athens and, after its founding in 1940, the Council of the Alumni Association. Fellows of the School were added in 1942—43 and from the reopening of the School to students in 1946—47 all Fellows and Students were listed.

When the new Chairman of the Managing Committee, Charles Hill Morgan, paid the first of his many visits to the office of the Publications Committee at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton in September 1950 (the Editor had spent the summer of 1950 in Athens, conferring with the staff there), he told the new Editor and Chairman of the Publications Committee that he wanted that office to take over full responsibility for editing, producing and distributing (with the attendant bookkeeping) of all School publications, including the Annual Report and folder formerly handled by the Chairman of the Managing Committee, and the distribution of the film Triumph over Time (the Editor was relieved of this in 1953) and the Alumni slide sets (see below, pp. 267—268). The only exception was to be the Corinth Guide, which from its first publication by Carpenter in 1930 has been the responsibility of the Director in Athens. Morgan said that he considered Publications a department of the School’s activities, its Editor a staff member of the School equivalent in rank to the Professor of Archaeology, and he expected Publications to work closely with both the Director and the Professor of Archaeology in their instructional program and with the Field Director(s) of Excavations (at that time there was but one but he foresaw others), since it is the business of Publications to make available to scholarship the results of both those activities of the School. He outlined right at the start the meager financial resources available but indicated that by working together the three departments could, he was sure, share what there was and all produce the results the School exists to achieve. The Editor felt that under his direction this could indeed be attained. She accepted the challenge under one condition, that the Committee on Publications be a working committee and that all policies and procedures be debated by them; she would then undertake to implement them. The Committee began in October 1950 to meet at least twice a year in long half-day sessions when they considered in detail both the scholarly and business aspects of the publishing business the School had undertaken. Further they volunteered many hours to reading manuscripts and proof and to correspondence between meetings. They were not merely a working Committee but a hard-working Committee whose selfless dedicated contributions of wisdom, experience, time and money (their transportation to meetings was always sua pecunia) played a major role in the results. The names of those of many years service deserve to be remembered: George H. Chase 1919 to his death in 1952, Harold F. Cherniss 1939–1956, Benjamin D. Meritt 1939–1969, Roy J. Deferrari 1943–1960, Charles H. Morgan 1950–1969, J. Walter Graham 1952–1961, James H. Oliver 1952–1968, Lloyd W. Daly 1956–1971, Homer A. Thompson 1960–1972 (who had attended fall meetings of the Committee as a guest from 1950). After 1969 members have served shorter terms because of a change in regulations, but their more limited service was also filled with concern and loyalty which have meant much to the School’s publications.

General policies had to be reviewed and confirmed or established as well as the individual application of them to the individual manuscripts which came before the Committee. Some of these are of general interest. At the first meeting in October 1950 the definition of the scope of Hesperia which had been voted by the Managing Committee in May 1949 was studied and restated more precisely: “the pages of Hesperia shall be for the publication of the work of the School and of the members of the School, and when space permits of the alumni of the School writing on non-School material.” The interpretation of “the work of the School” includes articles by Americans who have not been members of the School or by non-Americans who have been assigned publication of any of the School’s excavation material. This was approved by the Managing Committee in 1951 and incorporated in the Regulations as Article IX.4.

The three categories of articles which this definition includes had to be given conditions of acceptance. They were also given general priorities in time, with the understanding that size and cost of each number must be the final determining factor with categories II and III. Category I covers current excavation reports by Field Directors. These are accepted automatically and published in the next number of Hesperia after receipt (or the second if there are too many for one number), the School’s own excavations taking precedence over those sponsored by the School (this latter provision was made after there began to be a number of sponsored excavations). Category II A consists of Staff articles (by the Director or Professors of the School) accepted automatically; B articles by members of the School and recommended to the Committee by the Director, the Professor of Archaeology, or a Field Director, accepted automatically on that recommendation; C articles on excavation material assigned by Field Directors and recommended by the Field Director, accepted automatically on that recommendation. These articles are published in order of receipt (regardless of whether A, B, or C) so far as size permits after articles of Category I. Category III are articles of alumni on non-school material (but see below, pp. 272—273), the only articles eligible for Hesperia on which the Committee exercises its authority for acceptance. These are read by the Editor and one other member of the Committee and if approved by them are accepted. In the earlier years if there was any question of acceptance, the articles were always brought to the full Committee for consideration before being rejected. From 1972 the following procedure was introduced: if both readers wish to reject or if there is a difference of opinion, the member of the Committee who is not the Editor suggests another reader who is either in or out of the Publications Committee. If this reader agrees to rejection, the article is rejected. If there is a difference of opinion, the article is read by all members of the Publications Committee and the majority opinion prevails. Category III articles which have been accepted are published in order of receipt after Categories I and II so far as size permits; small articles of Category III can often fill out a number when there is not space for those of I and II on hand. Since no article of Categories I and II can be refused by the Committee, it is obvious how much editorial work may sometimes be required on the manuscripts of young or inexperienced authors. Unless extensive revision is required (for which the manuscript is returned to the author with suggestions), the necessary editing is done by the Editor. All these details of procedure, obvious as they may seem, were not always understood by some persons associated with the School, and from time to time the Committee was asked to state them. They are therefore repeated here.

Section 3 of Article IX of the Regulations was, in 1958, changed in wording for greater clarity, but not in meaning: “Scholarly material which is School excavation material and has been assigned either to members or nonmembers of the School may be published under auspices other than those of the School only with the approval of the Director or the Committee on Publications.”

Responsibility for the acceptance of book manuscripts was considered, in general, to lie within the authority of whoever made the assignment. The Committee continued to act as the general editor of the Corinth volumes which had been assigned by the Committee through Fowler in 1924 or by Louis Lord in the forties, and the Committee had to continue to make assignments when reassignments were necessary until work was resumed at Corinth under the Director Henry Robinson in 1959. After that he and then Charles Williams as Field Director assumed responsibility for assignment as had been the case with the Field Directors of the Agora excavation and Lerna and the School-sponsored excavations. The old tradition from the beginning of the School again maintained that the Director or Field Director makes publication assignments. Once manuscripts were presented to the Committee by the pertinent Director as acceptable and recommended by him for publication, the responsibility for editing and production was transferred to the Editor and Committee. The Committee held firmly to its responsibility (delegated by them to the Editor) for the final editing. Because the Editor and the Directors kept in such close contact both before and after the manuscripts were handed over to the Editor, and because the Editor consulted frequently with most authors while their work was being prepared, it was usually possible to complete the final editing and put the books into press in a relatively short time, always in fact as soon as funds were available. Misunderstandings there were, but they were few, and usually authors in the end recognized that condensation of text or cuts in illustrations (or their size, which the Committee stringently required the Editor to make on occasion for the sake of both scholarship and economy) improved rather than harmed their volumes. The Committee’s fundamental principle in production was that the best scholarly presentation should be the ideal, then cut from that as required, not the reverse of thinking first how cheaply something could be printed. This meant that for each volume the best press treatment the School could possibly afford was given.

The new editor found not only the usual drawer of articles awaiting printing in Hesperia but also book manuscripts. Before she could embark on the publication of them much had to be done in the production part of the enterprise. Meritt had established the existing friendly and effective teamwork with the J. H. Furst Company of Baltimore acting as printers of text and line cuts and as binders and with the Meriden Gravure Company of Meriden, Connecticut supplying the photographic plates of Hesperia and books alike. The quantity of books on hand and looming ahead in 1950 was greater, however, than the facilities of the Furst Company could accommodate. Another printer had to be tried for one volume, but estimates made by him for others were far beyond the means of the School. At that first meeting of the Committee in October 1950 the Editor was instructed to find a new printer for books; the Committee had no intention of printing Hesperia anywhere but with the Fursts so long as they would do it, and it was happy with Meriden as engraver. The School has been fortunate to have formed the association it has with Furst and Meriden, and the bond would grow closer and the appreciation greater over the next 30 years. Fortunately for the School the new firm selected in 1950 to try one volume of Corinth proved to be an equally happy and successful member of the American School publication team. So mutually satisfactory was that experiment with Corinth, I, iii, that J. J. Augustin of Glückstadt, Germany has been printing most of the books ever since (to 1980), usually with Meriden supplying the plates as they do to Furst for Hesperia. The remarkable personal interest which these three firms have taken in the School and its publications, their justifiable pride in their meticulous and excellent work, their constant help in advice and in searching for better results and above all for economies without loss of quality have been contributions to the School’s century of achievement which deserve to be mentioned here; the appreciation of the School has hardly been overstated, so essential a part of the School’s work have these firms and their personnel been. Furst undertook the Annual Reports and folders and the occasional Handbooks (1949, 1959, 1980) as well as the Hesperia Index and Supplements when they were revived. Meriden has been responsible for both the conception of the Picture Books and their production and for most of the reprints by offset of the volumes of the Athenian Agora series (see below, pp. 261—262).

With principles of scholarly assignment and editing established and with production processes arranged there remained for the Committee to make decisions regarding sale and distribution, its newest responsibility. It began, once more, with the fundamental purpose of the School’s publications enunciated at the beginning, to make available as promptly as possible the results of the School’s activity whether in the study or in the field. That should mean, the Committee felt, that publications should be priced so that they would be available to scholars and students as well as libraries; the School should make a monetary as well as a scholarly contribution to classical studies by absorbing some of the cost. Yet the funds were so limited that a balance would have to be struck between keeping the price moderate for the profession and getting the publishing done and the books out. The price of Hesperia at the beginning in 1932, $3.00, was such a small portion of its printing cost that it had been raised to $5.00 in 1940. By 1952, after no little agony of decision the rise in printers’ rates caused the rise to $7.50 for 1953; ten years later costs had risen another one-third so the price went to $10.00 for 1963. The change to $15.00 for 1974 reflected the continuing increase in cost, and the $22.50 soon after in 1976 records the inflation of these years. Hesperia Supplements, begun in 1937, cost the School like the books they are (except for the cover), and in 1950 Chairman Morgan begged the Publications Committee not to issue Supplements so that the limited funds could be used for the regular series of excavation and Gennadeion volumes. These books of the Corinth and Gennadeion Monograph series and later the Catalogues of the Gennadeion, the Athenian Agora and Lerna series were priced at one-half to two-thirds of their manufacturing cost, the School absorbing the remainder of the printing and all the overhead cost, including salaries of the Editor and Publications Secretary. This was possible since the subscriptions to Hesperia continued to increase (from 352 in 1950 to over 500 in 1956, over 700 in 1966, 900 in 1970) in spite of the rise in price, and the sale of books increased steadily, both the old ones until they went out of print and the new ones coming along, on an average of two or three a year, whereas salaries, though they steadily increased slightly, were not allowed to increase with the rise in printing costs beyond what the income from sales and from the small Publications endowment would allow and what could be spared from the general funds. The Committee took other measures to increase income and cut costs. With prices set so low (relatively), it was possible to cut dealers’ discount to 10%, authors’ discount to 15% and still allow to the libraries and Cooperating Institutions the same 10% offered to dealers. The often high cost of authors’ corrections was noted, and the Committee at first (1950) decided to charge authors for anything above 10% of the total printing cost of the volume without the corrections; later (1958) this was changed to 5%. Another policy decision (1954) was that no color plates would be used in any volume unless subsidized. The Committee was grateful that frequently gifts were made to allow color plates where especially valuable to the volume.

The question of advertising was considered regularly by the Committee. There being no funds to pay for any of the regular means of announcing the new books, such as mention in the Publishers’ Trade List Annual, the office did its own advertising on the covers of Hesperia and by mailing a mimeographed list of publications in print to some 1000 libraries and dealers throughout the world; the addressing was done by the Publications Secretary and volunteer help. Since sales increased markedly and steadily each year, no loss was felt from the lack of advertising by a big publishing house. As the list of publications continued to increase, by the mid-1960s the Committee began to feel the need for recognition of the existence of the School as a Publisher; it did not wish, however, to take from the printing of books and Hesperia the large sum required. It welcomed a gift which provided in 1968—69 for the inclusion of the School’s list of books in Publishers’ Trade List Annual and Books in Print; thereafter funds were found to continue the listing.
Let us return now to the books which were being published following these general policies. In 1950 one of the volumes worked on in Corinth just after the war (above, pp. 28—29) was in press with the J. H. Furst Company; other manuscripts were on hand and continued to reach the office. Between 1950 and 1972 eleven volumes in the Corinth series were published: the six listed on page 50 above; XVI, Robert L. Scranton, Mediaeval Architecture in the Central Area of Corinth, 1957; I, v, Saul S. Weinberg, The Southeast Building, The Twin Basilicas, The Mosaic House, 1960; XIII, Carl W. Blegen, Rodney S. Young, and Hazel Palmer, The North Cemetery, 1964; I, vi, Bert Hodge Hill, The Springs, 1965; VIII, iii, John H. Kent, The Inscriptions, 1926–1950, 1966. The next to last of these calls for special comment.

No Corinth volume had been more eagerly anticipated than Mr. Hill’s Peirene and the Sacred Spring. None had been fraught with more difficulties, more anguish, more misunderstandings and more disappointments for all concerned, author, Managing Committee and its successive Chairmen, Publications Committee and its Chairmen, many friends of all of them, and the faithful house of Adolf Holzhausens Nachfolger. Its completion was no small triumph. When after years of painstaking study Bert Hodge Hill had begun to put down his thoughts about these springs his manuscript for Peirene was set in type and the cuts for the drawings (chiefly by Richard Stillwell) and photographs were made. The handsome folio-size color plates of Prentice Duell’s water colors of the paintings in the chambers of Peirene had actually been printed before the war. But Mr. Hill found when the chapter on Peirene was in proof that some points needed further checking and that the manuscript for the Sacred Spring, written many years before, needed revision in the light of further discoveries and newer interpretations. He was working at these problems when the war cut off communication with Vienna, and he continued to work on them throughout the war years (see above, pp. 3—4, 9, 18). The last proofs from Holzhausens were carefully stored in a safe by Meritt as a precaution so that some record of Hill’s work would be available. Contact was finally made once more with Holzhausens in 1952. The Committee was deeply touched to learn that at no small personal danger to themselves that loyal firm had carefully hidden away all the type as well as the-printed color plates and original plans and photographs and had kept them intact throughout the war. They were ready and eager to proceed again with the production of the volume. Mr. Hill, however, was not yet ready with his text complete. The Committee guaranteed to Holzhausens that if they wished to keep the cuts the School would have them print the work whenever circumstances would permit; they could throw in the type of the text since it clearly would have to be reset. The Committee felt, however, that since the future of the volume was so uncertain it was only sensible to have in its possession the printed color plates so that they could be made available in some way if all else failed; so Holzhausens was instructed to send them to Augustin in Glückstadt to be sent to the United States in one of their regular shipments to the Publications office. As the years passed everyone waited, and then Mr. Hill let it be known that he was willing to have the volume published as he would leave the manuscript after his death. Carl Blegen, Mr. Hill’s executor, searched through all his papers after his death in 1958 and after going over the notes very carefully, himself interpreting and clarifying and correcting here and there, turned over all documents to Charles Morgan who also went over them painstakingly. Clearly the texts for both Peirene and the Sacred Spring were unfinished, and only a beginning of Mr. Hill’s revision of George Elderkin’s early study of Glauke had been made, but the Committee decided that, unfinished though it was, the record of Mr. Hill’s meticulous observation and recording and brilliant interpretation of these very significant monuments should be made available. The Editor, therefore, made a trip to Corinth where she checked every item of description and dimension in the springs themselves, as all knew that Bert Hill would have wanted done, collated the several versions of the text, edited the pages and sent them to Holzhausens. The new text was set with their usual care and precision; some of the cuts which had been kept had warped and had to be remade; Richard Stillwell made the necessary new drawings. Finally, text with drawings and photographs and folio-size plans made by several Corinth architects were printed; the color plates in Glückstadt were inserted into the portfolio; the volumes were seen through the customs by the kindness of J. J. Augustin, and at their meeting on November 7, 1965, the Publications Committee with Richard Stillwell as guest celebrated the publication of Corinth, I, vi, The Springs and the memory of Bert Hodge Hill, the author, and of Edward Capps and Louis Lord who had dedicated themselves to the goal of achieving this publication.

The luxury of half-tone illustrations in Corinth, I, vi was an anachronism in 1965; they had become too expensive as early as the 1950s: But the Committee was not satisfied with the collotype plates which had been substituted for half-tones for excavation views and architectural details. With the concerned help of the Meriden Gravure Company, who were developing a fine offset process, a combination of several processes was used in the Corinth volumes of these years to give the best possible results. The high cost of line cuts also made necessary the use of offset for large plans, with a remarkable improvement in detail, as the plans in Corinth, I, iv first showed.

Meanwhile in Greece the Director had seen to the printing and distribution of a 6th edition of the Corinth Guide in 1954. When Robinson revived work at Corinth, he printed in 1964 a pamphlet containing his lecture on the Urban Development of Corinth (revised in 1965) and a new guide, Corinth, A Brief History of the City and a Guide to the Excavations, a revised edition of which was brought out by Charles Williams in 1969.

When Shirley Weber’s manuscript for the travel section of the Gennadius Library was ready, the Committee decided that, although it had been planned as Gennadeion Monograph IV, the volumes of the catalogue should be designated as such. A new series, Catalogues of the Gennadius Library, was begun in 1952 (see above, p. 224). Kevin Andrews, Castles of the Morea was published as Gennadeion Monograph IV in 1953.

The new series which was to be of greatest significance for the Publications program was the Athenian Agora series which began in 1953 as the definitive publication of the results of excavation of the Athenian Agora. Annual preliminary reports of each season’s campaign had appeared regularly in Hesperia since Volume II, 1933, and detailed articles on groups of finds and buildings had also appeared in Hesperia, occupying about one half of each volume. Many of these gave valuable chronological evidence, one of the outstanding contributions of the Agora. What general principle should govern the final publication was a problem which concerned the original Field Director as well as his successor whose responsibility it became in 1947 to put the program into action. A policy of selectivity was the fundamental principle; there should be no attempt to publish every object of every category; selections should be made to demonstrate the contribution of the excavation to scholarship. This policy was warmly approved and supported by the Publications Committee on both scholarly (primarily) and financial counts. Field Director and Committee were in agreement as the general policy was established and the assignments were made for volumes on classes of material. As the studies were in progress it was obvious that special funding must be obtained; the School could barely publish its other commitments. Twenty volumes were projected, and what seemed at the time a safe estimate allowing for a reasonable rise in cost was made: $100,000 plus the interest which would accrue was thought to be adequate for the projected program. Unfortunately both the number of the volumes and their cost were to increase with the years. In 1957 Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. made a gift of $100,000 for publication of the Agora (see above, p. 180). The series had been inaugurated in 1953 with Portrait Sculpture by Evelyn B. Harrison as Volume I.

Other volumes followed in rapid succession, but although some authors completed their assignments with commendable promptness, various circumstances delayed others seriously, and the large main categories originally planned for the volumes began to split up so that by the time the Rockefeller funds were exhausted nearly 20 volumes had been published but more had been assigned and would be necessary to cover the excavations through 1967. The record of the Agora publications in the roughly 20 years from their inception is, however, a distinguished one; at least one volume of every main class of material was published as well as the general topographical volume. They were well received, and many went out of print much more quickly than had been anticipated. The list of these volumes (to 1972; see also below, p. 270) which have lent real distinction to the School while they fulfilled the commitment to publish the results of the excavations follows (Committee and Field Director had agreed to number the volumes consecutively as they appeared, not according to a prearranged plan as in the Corinth Series): I (see above); II, Margaret Thompson, Coins, From the Roman through the Venetian Period, 1954; III, R. E. Wycherley, Testimonia, 1957; IV, Richard H. Howland, Greek Lamps and their Survivals, 1958; V, Henry S. Robinson, Pottery of the Roman Period, Chronology, 1959; VI, Clairève Grandjouan, Terracottas and Plastic Lamps of the Roman Period, 1961; VII, Judith Perlzweig, Lamps of the Roman Period, 1961; VIII, Eva Brann, Late Geometric and Proto-Attic Pottery, 1962; IX, George C. Miles, Islamic Coins, 1962; X, Mabel Lang and Margaret Crosby, Weights and Measures and Tokens, 1964; XI, Evelyn B. Harrison, Archaic and Archaistic Sculpture, 1965; XII, Brian A. Sparkes and Lucy Talcott, Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th, and 4th Centuries B.C., 1970; XIII, Sara Anderson Immerwahr, The Neolithic and Bronze Ages, 1971; XIV, Homer A. Thompson and R. E. Wycherley, The Agora of Athens, 1972; XX, Alison Frantz, The Church of the Holy Apostles, 1972. The one exception to the rule of consecutive numbering was that Volumes XV through XIX were reserved for the five epigraphical numbers so that in the end those would stand on shelves together. Volumes XV and XVII were in press in 1972, but since epigraphical typesetting is a slow business, they appeared only in 1974, XVII, Donald W. Bradeen, Inscriptions, Funerary Monuments and 1975, XV, Benjamin D. Meritt and John S. Traill, Inscriptions, The Athenian Councillors.

When the early volumes began to go out of print the Committee debated whether it should attempt to keep in print all volumes of the series so that they might be sold as a set to the many libraries just beginning to acquire archaeological volumes in those years. The decision about the desirability was easy; all agreed that all Agora volumes should be kept in print. How to do it was another matter. Fortunately for the School it was at about this time that the Meriden Gravure Company had perfected their offset process, and they were prepared to undertake the reprinting. Funds were the final question; when it was decided that the Agora Phase B Publication Fund could be used for this purpose, the reprinting began in 1961 with Volumes I and II.

Meanwhile urgent need had been felt for a small guide book to the Athenian Agora. Following the practice of the Corinth Guides which were printed in Athens and were the full responsibility of the Director, the same arrangement was made with the Field Director of the Athenian Agora for him to take full responsibility for the Agora Guide. The first edition issued in 1954 was followed by a second much enlarged edition in 1964 (see also below, p. 271).

From the early days of their terms of office Charles Morgan and the Editor had thought hard about how to achieve a goal ardently sought by both of them, namely, bringing the most significant and generally interesting results of the Agora excavations to a wide lay audience; they believed this to be one of the purposes of the School. The Editor had often discussed this problem with Harold Hugo of the Meriden Gravure Company on his monthly visits to the office. One day in 1958 Hugo tossed unto the desk a pamphlet saying “this may interest you.” The Editor still remembers clearly that her immediate reaction was that of the Cardinal’s emissary at Montefiascone, “Est, Est, Est.” Charles Morgan and Homer Thompson agreed that the answer was indeed a set of 32-page Picture Books, with chiefly pictures but some text, which could be produced in fine quality by offset to sell for 50 cents and make a profit (unheard of in School Publications). At the October 1958 meeting the Committee agreed to try the experiment, but again came the question of funds. Morgan generously lent the funds for a first Picture Book, to be repaid when the cost had been recovered. The new venture began with Pots and Pans of Classical Athens in February 1959; it had paid for itself by November. So was launched not only the sole money-making activity of the School but also one which carried the word of the School’s excavations far and wide throughout the world to school children and university students, to tourists in Athens and interested laymen everywhere. The Picture Books, set in type by the Stinehour Press and printed by the Meriden Gravure Company, have been sold from the office in Princeton, from 1962 to 1968 by Dora Woodhead acting as a volunteer agent in Britain, at numerous museum sales desks in the United States and Canada, and in the Athenian Agora where they have been sold officially by the Greek Government to which the School sells them. So successful have these booklets been that they are reprinted as necessary to keep them all in print. In order to keep them paying for themselves and make a small profit the original 50-cent price had to be raised in 1971; the Committee was reluctantly forced to charge 70 cents for the new No. 12 and any further new ones (see also below, p. 271). They continued to sell, however, on an average of four to five thousand copies a year. To the twelve titles published between 1959 and 1971 have been added seven more up to 1980 (see below, p. 271). One, No. 8, Garden Lore for which four color plates were used sold for $1.00. Here are the titles of the first twelve: 1. Pots and Pans of Classical Athens, 1959; 2. The Stoa of Attalos, 1959; 3. Miniature Sculpture in the Athenian Agora, 1959; 4. The Athenian Citizen, 1960; 5. Ancient Portraits from the Athenian Agora, 1960; 6. Amphoras and the Wine Trade, 1961; 7. The Middle Ages in the Athenian Agora, 1961; 8. Garden Lore of Ancient Athens, 1963; 9. Lamps from the Athenian Agora, 1963; 10. Inscriptions from the Athenian Agora, 1966; 11. Waterworks in the Athenian Agora, 1968; 12. The Athenian Agora, An Ancient Shopping Center, 1971.

Another publication of interest to the general public as well as to classical readers was a quarto-size booklet of reproductions of Gorham Phillips Stevens’s drawings of restorations of both Greek and Roman buildings. This was printed in Athens (the first printing under his careful scrutiny) in 1955 as a tribute to Mr. Stevens by contributions from some of his friends of both the American School in Athens and the American Academy in Rome. Restorations of Classical Buildings was sent as a gift to all Cooperating Institutions as well as to the American Academy in Rome when first published. It was reprinted from the income it has brought and continues to have a public.

It was indicated earlier (above, p. 242) that the independent monographs had been discontinued in 1950. The one exception was the fourth and final volume of The Athenian Tribute Lists, the Index, published in 1953 at no expense to the School; it was generously subsidized by the Institute for Advanced Study and the Semple Fund of the University of Cincinnati.

Hesperia Supplements also were discouraged, but when a manuscript could best be handled as a Supplement, it was considered for such treatment if some financial assistance could be obtained. John Fine, Horoi, Studies in Mortgage, Real Security and Land Tenure in Ancient Athens was published in 1951 as Supplement IX, with half the cost borne by Princeton University. Supplement X, Small Objects from the Pnyx, II, 1956, by Lucy Talcott, Barbara Philippaki, Virginia Grace, and G. Roger Edwards was the last of a long-time commitment of the School to publish the excavations on the Pnyx and was financed by the School. Supplement XI, Fortified Military Camps in Attica by James R. McCredie, 1966, was the publication of the excavation at Koroni; it was financed by an anonymous contribution arranged by the author. Like Supplement IX, the study of Supplement XII was based on epigraphical material from the Agora published for the first time, but they were too lengthy for Hesperia articles. Frederick Crawford and other Trustees made possible the publication of XII, The Athenian Constitution after Sulla by Daniel J. Geagan in 1967. For Supplement XIII, Marcus Aurelius, Aspects of Civic and Cultural Policy in the East by James H. Oliver, 1970, a contribution was made by the author.

There were still other excavations by the School which required publication. One which had been outstanding since 1924 was Nemea. In his latter years Bert Hodge Hill spent much of his time on his study of the temple. When it was left incomplete Charles K. Williams was asked to do the necessary study, further field investigation and drawing, to complete the volume, most of the drawings for which had been done by Lewey Lands. Since the University of Cincinnati had financed the excavation, it generously supported the publication by contributing the extra funds necessary to publish the drawings at folio size. In 1966 a handsome portfolio of drawings with quarto-size text inserted was published, The Temple of Zeus at Nemea by Bert Hodge Hill, with drawings by Lewey T. Lands, revised and supplemented by Charles Kaufman Williams, II. The School’s excavations at Lerna in 1952–1957 were being prepared also, and the first manuscript to be ready was the study of animal bones by the Swedish anthropologist N.-G. Gejvall. His The Fauna became Volume I of the Lerna series in 1969. The human bones were being studied by the expert at the Smithsonian Institution, J. Lawrence Angel. Publication of that study, of interest as much if not more to anthropologists as to prehistoric archaeologists, would have been extremely difficult and costly for the School to handle alone; further, the Smithsonian wanted it in its publications. As a result a very satisfactory arrangement was worked out by the Editor by which the School and the Smithsonian jointly sponsored the book: the Smithsonian did the editing and printing, gave the School copies of the printed sheets to be bound as Lerna, Volume II, The People of Lerna, 1971, bound others in their series, and the two institutions shared the cost.

Finally, the Isthmia excavations presented a knotty problem. As an excavation only sponsored by the School, not conducted by the School, it was the responsibility of the University of Chicago to support the publication as well as the excavation. When it became evident that this would not be done, the School was left with the responsibility to the Greek Government to provide publication. This moral and legal responsibility the School accepted to the extent of publishing the first volume, Temple of Poseidon, by Oscar Broneer, 1971. The understanding was that income from this volume plus, it was hoped, some contributions would create a revolving fund from which further volumes in the series could be financed. Two further volumes were published before 1980 (see below, pp. 270—271).

Since the School in sponsoring the excavations by Cooperating Institutions under the permits allowed to the School makes itself responsible to the Greek Government for the proper conduct of such excavations, the School is responsible for seeing that they are completed according to the terms of the government which include publication. It has been the general understanding that the School will publish preliminary reports in Hesperia (with the request but not requirement for some financial assistance) but that the final publication must be the responsibility of the Institution conducting the excavation. This had been done by the Samothrace excavation from the beginning of work there; more recently both the Kenchreai excavation by the University of Chicago and Indiana University and the Messenia expedition and excavation of Nichoria by the University of Minnesota have followed that procedure. For Isthmia the School had to take over the responsibility. When the final study of the excavations at Keos was beginning to be undertaken and plans for publication were made, the University of Cincinnati initiated talks with the Publications Committee concerning means by which the Keos volumes could be a series published by the School but financed by Cincinnati. Such an arrangement was seen as potentially beneficial to both School and University; the sponsorship of the School would be emphasized; the prestige of the School would give benefit and be benefited. If a satisfactory arrangement could be put into operation, it might serve as a precedent for the publication of other School-sponsored excavations. After several discussions about details of editing, production, distribution, financing and receipts, an agreement was reached in 1972. The first volume was published in 1977 (see below, p. 271), the financing of the printing and preliminary editing provided by Cincinnati, the editing and distribution by the School. The series is a joint publication of the School and the University of Cincinnati, and the proceeds from the sales are divided evenly.

By 1970 there were so many of the earlier Corinth volumes out of print that the Committee took steps to investigate reprint possibilities. The firm of William Clowes and Sons, Ltd. in England made estimates for the reprinting of I, iv, The South Stoa and I, v, The Basilicas and the Southeast Building which were much in demand. In response to a plea from the Committee, the Trustees made $15,000 available for a revolving fund for the reprints of Corinth volumes and those two were reprinted by Clowes in 1971. The purpose of the Fund was extended in 1972 to permit the reprinting by Clowes of The Athenian Agora, III, The Testimonia so that it might be available to accompany XIV, The Agora of Athens (1972). Although the cost was less than it would have been in Meriden, so was the quality, which, however, was at least adequate, and it was a distinct gain to have those volumes available again. The Committee was not only anxious to have the popular volumes in print but understandably was eager to get income from them for the School. Permission had been given reprint companies to reprint some of our books; the royalties received were very small. One separate monograph very much in demand, The Athenian Tribute Lists, III, had been reprinted by the School in 1968 and continued to have good sales.

The most serious need for reprinting was for Hesperia. For some years several possibilities were investigated; the best terms came from Swets and Zeitlinger in Amsterdam. The few remaining odd numbers of Volumes I through XXX were sold to them, and they were given the reprint rights in 1965; in 1968 these volumes were again available. The demand for them is indicated by the royalties received: $2183 in 1969, $7665 in 1970, and $6806 in 1971. The Committee regretted the high price of the reprints to which many members of the Managing Committee objected strenuously, but the School was in no position financially to undertake the task. At least some of the customers of the School began to realize the bargains they had been getting over the years from the School’s prices, and the Committee needed desperately every penny of the royalties it could get.

Two further items about Hesperia in these years need mention. When Bert Hodge Hill was nearing his 80th birthday the Committee wished to mark the occasion by doing him honor. There were no funds for a special Festschrift, and it did not appear that such volumes would be possible in the foreseeable future. The Committee therefore established a policy of dedicating a regular number of Hesperia on the occasion of the 80th birthday of such members of the School as it might wish to honor in future. Volume XXIII, 1, 1954 was dedicated to Bert Hodge Hill. No special articles were solicited, since his friends and colleagues were too numerous to make selection without some offense. The range of articles in a regular number was intended to suggest the range of his influence. The next men the School wished to honor became 80 in 1966 and 1967, so two numbers were needed close together. It was decided to make each a series of articles by invitation and to solicit contributions also. This precedent set in Volume XXXV, 2, 1966 presented to William Bell Dinsmoor on July 29, 1966 and Volume XXXV, 4, presented to Carl William Blegen on January 27, 1967 has been followed later. Both individuals and academic institutions contributed to the cost of these numbers slightly larger than the normal to accommodate nine articles and bibliography for Dinsmoor and twelve and bibliography for Blegen. Three years later the founder and first editor of Hesperia, Rhys Carpenter, reached 80 on August 5, 1969; Volume XXXVIII, 2, 1969 was dedicated to him with thirteen articles and bibliography; again substantial monetary contributions more than covered additional cost.

The perennial thorny problem for every Publications Committee since the end of the first decade of Hesperia has been an Index. The Index to Volumes I—X and contemporary Supplements set the precedent for an Index of every ten years. The first decade had not been without its troubles but they were as nothing compared to those of Volumes XI—XX. After work by more individuals than can be noted here the General Index was revised and completed by Janet Oliver and the Greek Index prepared by Benjamin Meritt; it was finally published in September 1968, two-thirds of the cost donated by the Institute for Advanced Study. That a more effective system must be devised was obvious; keeping up to date each year instead of waiting to undertake ten years at once seemed the answer. The Committee settled on an arrangement by which the Epigraphical Index which Benjamin Meritt volunteered to do each year would be published in No. 4 of each volume. The General Index was to be made and put on cards each year by a former member of the School who would be paid a small stipend for the work. The plan was to coordinate the ten years of published Epigraphical Indexes and the General Index ready on cards and to publish the ten-year Index relatively soon after the close of each ten-year period. Of this plan the annual publication of the Epigraphical Index has been carried out regularly. Benjamin Meritt prepared it for Volumes XXI through XL; John S. Traill has done it for Volume XLI on. For the General Index Mary Campbell Roebuck accepted the assignment for Volumes XXI through XXX but could not keep up to date with it, so that it was not completed for some years after 1961; publication therefore could not be considered. For Volumes XXXI through XL Susanne Halstead Young agreed to make the General Index and did so regularly until her death; her husband completed the last volume, and the cards were turned over to the office. Anne Graham was happy to accept the assignment for Volumes XLI through L, but her health made it impossible, and Martha Heath Wiencke took over (see below, p. 270).

The slides referred to above (p. 251) were a service both to Cooperating Institutions and to others, including many high schools, which was made possible by a gift from the Alumni Association. The Alumni paid for the original sets of slides of the excavations of the Athenian Agora and of Corinth intended for loan, free to Cooperating Institutions, and at the very nominal fee of $2.00 for others for educational purposes. The original sets (in 1951) were one 31/4 x 4-inch set of black-and-white slides each for the Athenian Agora and for Corinth. Soon a colored 2 x 2 set for the Athenian Agora was added (after which the original larger set was rarely ordered and was finally retired) and in 1960 one for Lerna. By 1960 the reproduction of colored slides had been improved to a quality which the Field Directors were willing to have distributed, and the sets were offered for sale as well as loan, in response to requests that had been increasing steadily. Response was immediate, and sales (of ten Agora sets and five Lerna sets the first few months) continued steady; loans continued but were far fewer. It was so clear that these sets of slides were filling a need that in 1961 Professor Caskey donated a set for Pylos and one for Troy which could be lent or duplicated for sale, and they too sold well. The Corinth color set was made available in 1963 and sales of all sets from 1961 to May 1963 numbered 110. By 1966 fifty-four universities and five museums as well as individuals had profited from this service; 215 sets had been sold. A second Athenian Agora set was also put in circulation, and one from Kea was donated. Sets from other excavations of the School or sponsored by the School were projected in 1966 but were never provided, because by this time the Archaeological Institute of America was planning and building up its slide archive. To this archive the Athenian Agora material was given in 1971, but the Publications Committee office continued until 1975 to sell the Corinth, Keos, Lerna, Pylos, and Troy sets at the request of the Field Directors of these excavations and the University of Cincinnati. Thereafter they were sold by the Secretary of the Alumni Association. By agreement between the Committee on Publications and the Alumni Association the proceeds from slide sales were turned over to the Alumni in order to be able to keep the slides in stock. The profit made possible the annual gifts of the Alumni to the School.

It will be clear from the above that the load the two members of the Publications Office were handling became heavier and heavier with the increase in number of volumes to be sold as well as edited and seen through the press. In spite of not a little volunteer help in packing, the need for at least a half-time assistant to fill the orders became greater each year after the late 50’s, but it was only in 1966—67 that funds could be found for a Sales Assistant to relieve the Secretary of packing books so that she could devote more time to assisting the Editor in proofreading as she had previously.

An undercurrent has run through all the above, the lack of funds to do what the manuscripts pouring into the office required. In the first years of the School as a publisher it was possible, with great care and constant scrutiny as well as a heavy load of editing and producing on the one hand and selling on the other, to put out enough new volumes from General Funds to keep the manuscripts going to the press as quickly as they were edited. In 1960 funds for publication began to be restricted to Income and Publication Endowment. This, combined with increasing costs, which were rising ever more rapidly, meant not only that books often had to wait but also that the Hesperia waiting list grew intolerably long at some times; this the Committee regretted exceedingly but was helpless to prevent. Usually it was a question of up and down years; after two or three of long waiting lists more funds could be put into Hesperia for slightly larger numbers in a lull of book manuscripts. The annual reports of the Committee deal regularly with the tight financial state. This is emphasized here to underscore the difficult task the new Editor took on. One of the most understanding tributes ever paid the Editor of 1950–1972 was a comment from a member of the Managing Committee that she was indeed making bricks without straw.

If that Chairman of the Publications Committee and Editor did follow the policies and standards set by Chase and by Meritt, if the articles and books issued in a near quarter century did make available the results of the School’s excavations and the staff’s and students’ other study with reasonable promptness as the original Managing Committee intended, inaugurating new series as required and opening up these results to the general public as well as to the scholarly world, it was because she was an active member of three active and devoted teams: (1) her Publications Committee (above, p. 252), (2) the officers of the School, especially the first group she worked with, Morgan, Caskey, Thompson, and (3) the firms of Furst, Meriden, and Augustin.

When Marian Holland McAllister became Editor in October 1972, the Editor was no longer also Chairman of the Committee on Publications. Responsibility was now shared, but as Committee members rotated on and off more rapidly now the Editor became the one figure with experience in the School’s problems. The Chairman for 1972—73 was Machteld Mellink; Mary White held the position from 1973 till her death in January 1977 when Phyllis Williams Lehmann became the Chairman for 1977–1980. The title of the assistant to the Editor was changed from Publications Secretary to Assistant to the Editor and the Sales Assistant became Publications Secretary in 1972. The most significant fact of these years had been the frightening inflation of production costs at the same time that the School’s finances were daily less and less adequate to cover them and that the printing firms were in difficulties. That the Committee and the Editor have kept up the standard and volume of publication as they have in the years 1972–1980 is no small achievement.
Hesperia fell on evil days when illness and death in the faithful Furst Company delayed publication so seriously that the second class permit was temporarily lost. To regain it meant seven numbers of Hesperia produced in one year, a veritable Heraklean task as Miss White rightly called it, with three of them being set by Clowes in England. Within a year Hesperia was back on schedule. One of the delayed numbers was another 80th birthday tribute. Volume XLIII, 4, was dedicated to Oscar Broneer with fifteen articles and bibliography; the Table of Contents was presented to him on December 28, 1974. Meanwhile production prices soared, but fortunately receipts from paid subscriptions (close to 800 in 1980) did also, for sales prices had to be raised sharply, up to $22.50 for 1976.

Four supplements were published: XIV, John S. Traill, The Political Organization of Attica and XV, Stephen V. Tracy, The Lettering of an Athenian Mason both published in 1975, XIV with subventions from the Department of the Classics, Harvard University and the Humanities Research Council of Canada, and XV assisted by the Department of the Classics, Harvard University. Supplement XVI, A Sanctuary of Zeus on Mount Hymettos was the publication by Merle K. Langdon of the excavation on which Rodney S. Young was engaged when Greece was invaded in 1940 (above, p. 6). It was published in 1976 in memory of “Rodney”, thus affectionately known to generations of American School members, by a gift of $1,000 from the Alumni Association and donations from many of his friends. Supplement XVII, Kallias of Sphettos and the Revolt of Athens in 286 B.C., by T. Leslie Shear, Jr. was published in 1978, the printing financed entirely by the Art and Archaeology Department of Princeton University.

The Index to Hesperia first carried the School into the computer age. Martha Heath Wiencke, responsible for Volumes XLI-L, recommended consultation with the Dartmouth Computer Center, the director of which believed it feasible and efficient to put the items into their computer. Mrs. Wiencke has put her own entries (on computer tape) and the two sets of cards for Volumes XXI to XL into a uniform format and is arranging for the computer programming; the computer tapes will eventually provide the “type” for publication (see below, p. 272).

The several series of books have continued to be augmented. To the Athenian Agora series have been added two volumes begun by the previous Editor (XV and XVII, see above, p. 261) and XXI, Graffiti and Dipinti by Mabel Lang in 1976. When several Corinth volumes were ready for press but there were no funds, a most generous anonymous donor came to the rescue in 1975 with a gift of $30,000 for a revolving fund for Corinth publications assigned since 1967. To this the Merrill Trust added a further $20,000. Corinth, VII, iii, Hellenistic Pottery by G. Roger Edwards and VII, ii, Archaic Corinthian Pottery and the Anaploga Well by D. A. Amyx and Patricia Lawrence were already in press and appeared in 1975 and 1976 respectively. The new fund allowed the prompt publication of VII, iv, The Red-figure Pottery by Sharon C. Herbert in 1977 and IX, ii, Sculpture, The Reliefs from the Theater by Mary C. Sturgeon in 1977. Another of the long-awaited volumes, assigned many years ago to Jack L. Benson, last (i and ii appeared in 1948 and 1952) of the three volumes publishing the Potters’ Quarter, XV, iii, The Pottery, was in press in 1980.

The Isthmia Revolving Fund was generously augmented by a gift of $15,000 from the Merrill Trust in 1973. Fortunately the fund was sufficient to allow the publication of two more volumes of the Isthmia series by the excavator and the author of Volume I, Oscar Broneer, namely, II, Topography and Architecture in 1973 and III, The Lamps in 1976.

A new series for which general arrangements were concluded in 1972 (above, pp. 264—265) was inaugurated with Keos, I, Kephala by John E. Coleman in 1977.
To the Athenian Agora Picture Book Series were added seven titles: 13, Early Burials in the Athenian Agora, 1973; 14, Graffiti in the Athenian Agora, 1974; 15, Greek and Roman Coins in the Athenian Agora, 1975; 16, The Athenian Agora, A Short Guide, 1976; 17, Socrates in the Agora, 1978; 18, Mediaeval and Modern Coins in the Athenian Agora, 1978; 19, Gods and Heroes in the Athenian Agora, 1980. Even though it was neccessary to raise the price of these little books to $1.00 in 1974 and $1.50 in 1978, their popularity remains unabated. It had been the hope of the Publications Committee from soon after the obvious success of the Athenian Agora Picture books that a similar set for Corinth could be established; that hope was finally fulfilled in 1977 when the first Corinth Notes was issued. Chairman of the Managing Committee Mabel Lang, who had prepared four of the Athenian Agora Picture Books, inaugurated the Corinth set with Cure and Cult in Ancient Corinth, A Guide to the Asklepieion.

A new edition of The Athenian Agora, Guide to the Excavation and Museum by Homer A. Thompson was published in Athens under his direction in 1976.

It was noted above (p. 242) that after World War II lack of funds had prevented the publication of individual monographs which had been such valuable contributions of the School to classical scholarship in earlier years. A Research and Publication Grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities made possible the resumption of that monograph series in 1980 with William B. Dinsmoor, Jr., The Propylaia to the Athenian Akropolis, Volume I, The Predecessors. This publication was a cause of double rejoicing, not only for the return of the monographs but especially for the beginning of that publication, anticipated for so many years, of the study of the Propylaia begun by William Bell Dinsmoor, Sr. three quarters of a century earlier and pursued by him over much of the School’s first century, one of its most distinguished endeavors.

In 1973 the Editor arranged for the Library of Congress catalogue card to be printed in the School volumes and for the Cataloguing in Publication service which automatically sends pre-publication notice of School volumes to libraries interested in classics and archaeology. Chairman Mary White hoped this would encourage advance orders. Athenian Agora XVII was the first volume put under this arrangement.

In 1973 also the Committee authorized the preparation of this volume of the history of the School as a sequel to Lord’s History, the text of which covered 1881 to 1939.

By 1979 it was clear that the School could no longer afford what had become a luxury, the traditional letter-press printing which was fast disappearing from many printing firms. J. H. Furst Co., the staff depleted through death and retirement and specially cast type no longer available for the linotype, was unable to keep to the required schedules. The demand for the special fonts needed for the School publications was too small to interest commercial firms in acquiring them. Investigation of the computer method of setting the text convinced the Committee on Publications that considerable saving could be effected by using a computer in the office of the Committee in Princeton to set the text and having the offset printing and binding done by an outside press, illustrations still to be provided by the Meriden Gravure Company. After a trial number of Hesperia (48, 4) was satisfactorily set by Dr. Stephen V. F. Waite of Logoi Systems at Hanover, New Hampshire, using the Ibycus computer system, decision was made to use this process if a computer could be acquired. Trustee David Packard generously donated some components of the Ibycus System; the School turned these over to the Institute for Advanced Study which purchased the remainder and assumed responsibility for maintenance. The School in exchange received free use of the computer and three terminals. The School also undertook to purchase the computer-driven typesetter, the service provided in the interim by Logoi Systems. The computer was installed at the Institute in April 1980. Both Hesperia and books are to be produced by the new method. This volume which records the first century of the School’s history is the one of the first and thus steps into the technique of the next century.

Since 1883 when the report of the work of the first year of the School was published, the publications of the School have been for the work of the School and its members present or past. In May 1977 the Managing Committee made a decision which would change that century-old policy. Now for the first time, except temporarily during World War II, the pages of School publications were to be opened to some who have not been members of the School or worked on School material. The Managing Committee opened the numbers of Hesperia to staff members of the Cooperating Institutions regardless of their connection with the School or its work by voting to change the Regulations of the School. A new century had begun; “a new generation” had arisen.

One final glance at the old century: the mere number of volumes published by the School between 1881 and 1981 may give some idea of how the School has fulfilled its publication responsibilities: Annual Reports 100, Bulletin 5, Papers 6, Hesperia 50, Hesperia Index 2, Hesperia Supplement 17, monographs 25, Corinth 30, Corinth Guides 11, Corinth Notes 1, Athenian Agora 18, Athenian Agora Guides 3, Athenian Agora Picture Books 19, Isthmia 3, Lerna 2, Keos 1, Gennadeion Monographs 4, Catalogues of the Gennadeion 2, Catalogue of Lear Drawings 1, Gennadeion Treasures 1, The Griffon 9 (see above, p. 231), Handbook of Information at least 4, Newsletter 7, an impressive total of some 220 without counting the 100 Annual Reports.